This is the second in a four-part series on container runtimes. In part 1, I gave an overview of container runtimes and discussed the differences between low-level and high-level runtimes. In this post I will go into detail on low-level container runtimes.

Low-level runtimes have a limited feature set and typically perform the low-level tasks for running a container. Most developers shouldn't use them for their day-to-day work. Low-level runtimes are usually implemented as simple tools or libraries that developers of higher level runtimes and tools can use for the low-level features. While most developers won't use low-level runtimes directly, it's good to know how they work for troubleshooting and debugging purposes.

As I explained in part 1, containers are implemented using Linux namespaces and cgroups. Namespaces let you virtualize system resources, like the file system or networking for each container. On the other hand, cgroups provide a way to limit the amount of resources, such as CPU and memory, that each container can use. At their core, low-level container runtimes are responsible for setting up these namespaces and cgroups for containers, and then running commands inside those namespaces and cgroups. Most container runtimes implement more features, but those are the essential bits.

Be sure to check out the amazing talk "Building a container from scratch in Go" by Liz Rice. Her talk is a great introduction to how low-level container runtimes are implemented. Liz goes through many of these steps, but the most trivial runtime you can imagine that you could still call a "container runtime" might do something like the following:

  • Create cgroup
  • Run command(s) in cgroup
  • Unshare to move to its own namespaces
  • Clean up cgroup after command completes (namespaces are deleted automatically when not referenced by a running process)

A robust low-level container runtime, however, would do a lot more, like allow for setting resource limits on the cgroup, setting up a root filesystem, and chrooting the container's process to the root file system.

Building a Sample Runtime

Let's walk through running a simple ad hoc runtime to set up a container. We can perform the steps using the standard Linux cgcreate, cgset, cgexec, chroot and unshare commands. You'll need to run most of the commands below as root.

First let's set up a root filesystem for our container. We'll use the busybox Docker container as our base. Here we create a temporary directory and extract busybox into it.

# CID=$(docker create busybox)
# ROOTFS=$(mktemp -d)
# docker export $CID | tar -xf - -C $ROOTFS

Now let's create our cgroup and set restrictions on the memory and CPU. Memory limits are set in bytes. Here we are setting the limit to 100MB.

# UUID=$(uuidgen)
# cgcreate -g cpu,memory:$UUID
# cgset -r memory.limit_in_bytes=100000000 $UUID
# cgset -r cpu.shares=512 $UUID

CPU usage can be restricted in one of two ways. Here we set our CPU limit using CPU "shares". Shares are an amount of CPU time relative to other processes running at the same time. Containers running by themselves can use the whole CPU, but if other containers are running, they can use a proportional amount of CPU to their CPU shares.

CPU limits based on CPU cores are a bit more complicated. They let you set hard limits on the amount of CPU cores that a container can use. Limiting CPU cores requires you set two options on the cgroup, cfs_period_us and cfs_quota_us. cfs_period_us specifies how often CPU usage is checked and cfs_quota_us specifies the amount of time that a task can run on one core in one period. Both are specified in microseconds.

For instance, if we wanted to limit our container to two cores we could specify a period of one second and a quota of two seconds (one second is 1,000,000 microseconds) and this would effectively allow our process to use two cores during a one-second period. This article explains this concept in depth.

# cgset -r cpu.cfs_period_us=1000000 $UUID
# cgset -r cpu.cfs_quota_us=2000000 $UUID

Next we can execute a command in the container. This will execute the command within the cgroup we created, unshare the specified namespaces, set the hostname, and chroot to our filesystem.

# cgexec -g cpu,memory:$UUID \
>     unshare -uinpUrf --mount-proc \
>     sh -c "/bin/hostname $UUID && chroot $ROOTFS /bin/sh"
/ # echo "Hello from in a container"
Hello from in a container
/ # exit

Finally, after our command has completed, we can clean up by deleting the cgroup and temporary directory that we created.

# cgdelete -r -g cpu,memory:$UUID
# rm -r $ROOTFS

To further demonstrate how this works, I wrote a simple runtime in bash called execc. It supports mount, user, pid, ipc, uts, and network namespaces; setting memory limits; setting CPU limits by number of cores; mounting the proc file system; and running the container in its own root file system.

Examples of Low-Level Container Runtimes

In order to better understand low-level container runtimes it's useful to look at some examples. These runtimes implement different features and emphasize different aspects of containerization.


Though not in wide use, one container runtime of note is lmctfy. lmctfy is a project by Google, based on the internal container runtime that Borg uses. One of its most interesting features is that it supports container hierarchies that use cgroup hierarchies via the container names. For example, a root container called "busybox" could create sub-containers under the name "busybox/sub1" or "busybox/sub2" where the names form a kind of path structure. As a result each sub-container can have its own cgroups that are then limited by the parent container's cgroup. This is inspired by Borg and gives containers in lmctfy the ability to run sub-task containers under a pre-allocated set of resources on a server, and thus achieve more stringent SLOs than could be provided by the runtime itself.

While lmctfy provides some interesting features and ideas, other runtimes were more usable so Google decided it would be better for the community to focus worked on Docker's libcontainer instead of lmctfy.


runc is currently the most widely used container runtime. It was originally developed as part of Docker and was later extracted out as a separate tool and library.

Internally, runc runs containers similarly to how I described it above, but runc implements the OCI runtime spec. That means that it runs containers from a specific "OCI bundle" format. The format of the bundle has a config.json file for some configuration and a root file system for the container. You can find out more by reading the OCI runtime spec on GitHub. You can learn how to install runc from the runc GitHub project.

First create the root filesystem. Here we'll use busybox again.

$ mkdir rootfs
$ docker export $(docker create busybox) | tar -xf - -C roofs

Next create a config.json file.

$ runc spec

This command creates a template config.json for our container. It should look something like this:

$ cat config.json
        "ociVersion": "1.0.0",
        "process": {
                "terminal": true,
                "user": {
                        "uid": 0,
                        "gid": 0
                "args": [
                "env": [
                "cwd": "/",
                "capabilities": {

By default it runs the sh command in a container with a root filesystem at ./rootfs. Since that's exactly the setup we want we can just go ahead and run the container.

$ runc run mycontainerid
/ # echo "Hello from in a container"
Hello from in a container


rkt is a popular alternative to Docker/runc that was developed by CoreOS. rkt is a bit hard to categorize because it provides all the features that other low-level runtimes like runc provide, but also provides features typical of high-level runtimes. Here I'll describe the low-level features of rkt and leave the high-level features for the next post.

rkt originally used the Application Container (appc) standard, which was developed as an open alternative standard to alternative to Docker's container format. Appc never achieved widespread adoption as a container format and appc is no longer being actively developed bit achieved its goals to ensure open standards are available to the community. Instead of appc, rkt will use OCI container formats in the future.

Application Container Image (ACI) is the image format for Appc. Images are a tar.gz containing a manifest directory and a rootfs directory for the root filesystem. You can read more about ACI here.

You can build a container image using the acbuild tool. You can use acbuild in shell scripts that can be executed much like Dockerfiles are run.

acbuild begin
acbuild set-name
acbuild dep add
acbuild copy hello /bin/hello
acbuild set-exec /bin/hello
acbuild port add www tcp 5000
acbuild label add version 0.0.1
acbuild label add arch amd64
acbuild label add os linux
acbuild annotation add authors "Carly Container <>"
acbuild write hello-0.0.1-linux-amd64.aci
acbuild end


I hope this helped you get an idea of what low-level container runtimes are. While most users of containers will use higher-level runtimes, it's good to know how containers are working underneath the covers for troubleshooting issues and debugging.

In the next post I'll move up the stack and talk about high-level container runtimes. I'll talk about what high-level runtimes provide and how they are much better for app developers who want to use containers. I'll also talk about popular runtimes like Docker and rkt's high-level features. Be sure to add my RSS feed or follow me on Twitter to get notified when the next blog post comes out.

Until then, you can get more involved with the Kubernetes community via these channels:

> Thanks to Craig Box, Jack Wilbur, Philip Mallory, David Gageot, Jonathan MacMillan, and Maya Kaczorowski for reviewing drafts of this post.